Hainan Overview

About Hainan


Source:en.hainan.gov.cnDecember 02, 2021



According to the results of the seventh national census in 2020, the total population of 19 cities and counties in the province is 10081232. Compared with the 8,671,485 population in the sixth national census in 2010, the population of the province increased by 1409747, an increase of 16.26%, with an average growth rate of 1.52%. Among the population of the whole province, the population living in cities and towns is 6075981, accounting for 60.27%; The population living in rural areas is 4005251, accounting for 39.73%.




The Han, Li, Miao, and Hui nationalities in Hainan Province have lived here for generations. The rest of the ethnic groups moved here after the liberation, including cadres, workers and immigrants, who were scattered throughout the province. The Li nationality people are the earliest residents on Hainan Island. Most of the Li, Miao, and Hui who have lived here for generations live in the central and southern counties of Qiongzhong, Baoting, Baisha, Lingshui, Changjiang, Sanya and Wuzhishan. Han people mainly gather in the northeast, north and coastal areas. According to the results of the seventh national census in 2020, among the provinces population, the Han population is 8,498,241, accounting for 84.30%; the ethnic minority population is 15,82991, accounting for 15.70%. 

Geographical Location

Source:en.hainan.gov.cnDecember 03, 2021


Hainan Province is located at the southernmost tip of China. The northern part of Hainan and Guangdong Province are delimited by the Qiongzhou Strait. The west of Hainan is opposite to Vietnam, and they are separated by the Beibu Gulf. The eastern and southern parts of Hainan are deep in the South China Sea, adjacent to the Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia. The administrative area of Hainan Province includes the islands and reefs of Hainan Island, Paracel Islands, Zhongsha Islands, and Nansha Islands and their sea areas. It is the largest province in the country. The province's land (mainly including Hainan Island, Xisha, Zhongsha, and Nansha Islands) has a total area of 35,400 square kilometers and a sea area of about 2 million square kilometers. The total length of the coastline is 1944 kilometers, and there are 68 harbors of varying sizes.


Hainan Island is low and flat all around, towering in the middle, forming a topography of Qionglong Mountain. With Wuzhishan and Yinggeling as the core of the uplift, Hainan Island descends gradually to the periphery. Hainan Island consists of mountains, hills, platforms, and plains forming a ring-shaped layered landform with obvious cascade structures.


Natural Resources

Source:en.hainan.gov.cnDecember 03, 2021


Land Resources.


Hainan Province is the countrys largest "Tropical Treasure Land" with a total land area of 3.518 million hectares, accounting for 42.5% of the countrys tropical land area, and a per capita land area of about 0.44 hectares. Due to the superior conditions of light, heat and water, farmland can be planted all year round, and many crops are harvested 2 to 3 times a year.


According to suitability, land resources can be divided into the following 7 types: land suitable for agriculture, land suitable for rubber, land suitable for tropical crops, land suitable for forestry, land suitable for grazing, planting rice and other land. The developed land is about 3.3136 million hectares, and the undeveloped land is 205,100 hectares. Hainan is rich in land reserve resources and has great development potential in the future.


Crop Resources


Food crops are the crops with the largest area, the widest distribution and the highest output value in Hainan's planting industry. They mainly include rice, upland rice, and hillside rice, followed by sweet potatoes, cassava, taro, corn, millet, and beans. The main cash crops are sugarcane, hemp, peanut, sesame, tea and so on. There are many kinds of fruits, mainly pineapple, lychee, longan, banana, orange, mango, watermelon, star fruit, jackfruit, rambutan, dragon fruit, etc. There are more than 120 kinds of vegetables.


Tropical crops are rich in resources. Among them, the tropical crops with large cultivation area and high economic value mainly include rubber, coconut, betel nut, coffee, pepper, oil palm, sisal, lemongrass, cashew nuts, cocoa, etc.


Plant Resources


Hainan has fast-growing vegetation and numerous plants. It is the native land of tropical rain forests and tropical monsoon forests. There are more than 4600 kinds of vascular plants in Hainan Island, accounting for about 1/7 of the country's total, of which more than 490 are unique to Hainan. Tropical forest vegetation types are complex, with obvious vertical zoning, and have the characteristics of mixed, multi-layered, different age, evergreen, dry height, and canopy width. Tropical forests are mainly distributed in Wuzhishan, Jianfengling, Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Limushan and other forest areas, among which Wuzhishan is an undeveloped virgin forest. Tropical forests are famous for producing precious tropical wood. There are 5 types of special woods: Huali, Polei, Zijing, Litchi, and Musheng, 34 types of Timber I, 48 types of Timber II, and 119 types of Timber III.


Animal Resources


There are 660 species of terrestrial vertebrates in Hainan, including 43 species of amphibians, 113 species of reptiles, 426 species of birds and 78 species of mammals. Among the terrestrial vertebrates, 23 species are endemic to Hainan. The rare and precious animals in the world include the black-crowned gibbon and the sambar deer, sambar, macaque, black bear, clouded leopard and so on. The results of the survey of terrestrial wildlife in Hainan Province published in May 1998 recorded a total of 4 classes, 32 orders, 77 families, and 320 species of animals. Among the 320 species of animals, 7 are national first-level protected animals and 22 are provincial-level protected animals. A total of 14 species of birds that have not been recorded in history have been discovered in Hainan.


Southern medicine resources


Hainan is rich in animal and plant medicinal resources, and is known as the "natural medicine treasure". There are about 2000 kinds of plants that can be used as medicines. There are 500 kinds of medicines included in the pharmacopoeia, and more than 30 kinds of southern medicines. The four most famous southern medicines include binglang, yizhi, sharen, and baji. There are nearly 50 kinds of animal medicinal materials and marine medicinal materials. For example, antler, bezoar, pangolin, sea dragon, seahorse, sea snake, amber, pearl, sea cucumber, coral, clam shell, oyster, stone cassia, sea turtle board, etc.


Aquatic Resources


Hainans marine aquatic resources have the characteristics of wide marine fishing grounds, diverse species, fast growth and long fishing seasons. They are an ideal place for the development of tropical marine fisheries in China. More than 800 fish species have been recorded in the coastal waters of Hainan Island, more than 1,000 species have been recorded in the continental shelf of the northern South China Sea, and more than 500 species have been recorded in the waters of the South China Sea Islands.


Sea salt resources


Hainan Island is an ideal natural salt field. On the arc-shaped area from Sanya to Dongfang coast for hundreds of miles, salt can be sun-dried in many harbors and beaches. Large saltworks such as Yinggehai, Dongfang and Yuya have been built, among which Yinggehai Saltworks is the most famous.


Mineral Resources


There are many types of mineral resources in Hainan. A total of 88 kinds of minerals have been discovered in the province, and 70 kinds of minerals with industrial reserves have been evaluated, of which 59 kinds have been listed in the statistics of mineral resources and reserves, and 487 are produced. Hainan's mineral resources mainly include petroleum, natural gas, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, precious metals, rare metals, metallurgical auxiliary raw materials, chemical raw materials, construction materials, other non-metallic minerals, groundwater, hot mineral water and drinking natural mineral water. Hainan has many advantageous minerals, and the proven reserves are in the forefront of the country. For example, petroleum, natural gas, glass sand, ilmenite, zircon placer, gems, rich iron ore, bauxite (trihydrate type), granite for facing, drinking natural mineral water, hot mineral water, etc.


The proven natural gas fields in the seas around Hainan Island mainly include Ya 13-1, Dongfang 1-1, Ledong 15-1, etc. 4 large-scale mineral deposits have been proven for glass sand, mainly distributed in Danzhou, Dongfang, Wenchang and other places. Ilmenite placers are mainly distributed on the east coast of Hainan Island. There are 24 proven deposits, including 3 large deposits and 1 medium-sized deposit. Zircon placers have proven 3 large-scale deposits, 6 medium-sized deposits, and 19 small-scale deposits, mainly distributed in Wenchang, Qionghai, Wanning, Lingshui and other cities and counties.One large gem deposit has been proven on Hainan Island, which is located in Wenchang. The rich iron ore is located in Shilu Town, Changjiang, with a reserve of 231 million tons. It is one of the few rich iron ore in China. One large bauxite deposit has been proven, located in the Penglai area in the northern part of Hainan Island. Granite for facing is mainly distributed in Tunchang, Qiongzhong, Sanya, Ledong, Baisha and other cities and counties. The color varieties mainly include Yaxian red, emerald red, emerald white jade, four-color flower, rose red, sesame white and so on. Drinking natural mineral water has been found in all cities and counties.


Water Resources


The theoretical hydropower reserves of large and small rivers in Hainan Island are more than 1 million kilowatts, and about 900,000 kilowatts can be developed. The reserves of groundwater resources in Hainan Island are about 7.5 billion cubic meters, accounting for about 20.0% of the total water resources, of which 2.530 billion cubic meters can be exploited in theory.


Tourism Resources


Hainan has rich tourism resources and features, mainly in the following aspects:


Coastal landscape On Hainan Islands 1,944-kilometer-long coastline, sandy shores account for about 50% to 60%. The sandy beaches range from hundreds of meters to more than 1,000 meters in width. The slope toward the sea is generally 5 degrees, extending slowly. Most places are calm and the sea is clear, the sand is white as flocculent, and it is clean and soft. The shore is lined with trees and the air is fresh. The temperature of seawater is generally 18℃~30, and the sun is full and bright. In Hainan Island, sea bathing, sun bathing, sand bathing and wind bathing are available most of the year. The five elements of sunshine, sea water, beach, green, and air that are loved by international tourists today are all present along the coast of Hainan Island. From Haikou to the east coast of Sanya, there are more than 60 places that can be turned into beaches. There are different types of scenic spots on the coast around the island. On the east coastline, the special tropical tidal flat forest landscape-mangroves, and the unique tropical coastal landscape-coral reefs, all have high ornamental value. Hainan has established mangrove protection areas in Haikou Dongzhai Port, Wenchang Qinglan Port and other places.




There are more than 100 islands around Hainan Island, mainly distributed along the eastern and southern coasts. The Paracel Islands have 22 islands with a land area of 8 square kilometers, of which Yongxing Island is the largest. These islands are located in the tropics, with long sunshine, sufficient light energy, clear sea water and rich aquatic resources, which are very valuable for tourism. The islands that have carried out tourism projects include Wuzhizhou Island, West Island, Fenjiezhou Island, and Paracel Islands.


Mountains and tropical virgin forests


Hainan Island has 81 peaks above 1,000 meters above sea level. Hainan Island has many very famous mountaineering tours and summer resorts. For example, the top of the mountain is jagged and shaped like a five-finger Wuzhi Mountain, the majestic Yinggeling, the Dongshanling with strange stone peaks, the Taipingshan with waterfalls, and the Qixianling, Jianfengling, Diaoluoshan, Bawangling and so on. The most characteristic mountains in Hainan are densely covered tropical virgin forests, including Ledong Jianfengling, Changjiang Bawangling, Lingshui Diaoluo Mountain, and Qiongzhong Wuzhi Mountain, among which 4 tropical virgin forest areas are, among which Ledong Jianfengling is the most typical.


Rare birds and animals


In order to protect species and facilitate viewing, Hainan has established a number of wildlife reserves and domestication farms. Including Changjiang Bawangling Black Crested Gibbon Reserve, Dongfang Datian Deer Reserve, Wanning Dazhou Island Golden Swiftlet Reserve, Lingshui Nanwan Peninsula Macaque Reserve, Tunchang Deer Farm, etc.


Scenery of big rivers, waterfalls and reservoirs


The Nandu River, Changhua River, Wanquan River and other rivers have alternating beaches and lakes, meandering, and clear rivers. They are good places for tourist and scenic views. The scenery of Wanquan River is especially famous throughout the country. There are many small rivers or mountain creeks deep in the mountains, and there are many waterfalls. Among them, Wuzhishan Taipingshan Waterfall and Qiongzhong Baihualing Waterfall have long been famous. There are still many reservoirs on Hainan Island, especially the Songtao, Nanfu, Changmao, Shilu reservoirs, which have beautiful lakes and mountains. They are not lakes, but they are more beautiful than lakes.


Volcanoes, caves, hot springs


Volcanic eruptions in history have left many dead volcanic craters on Hainan Island. The most typical one is Shishan Mountain in Haikou. Shishan Mountain has Shuangling Mountains with an altitude of more than 200 meters. There are two volcanic craters on the ridge with a concave ridge in the middle, which resembles a saddle, also known as Saddle Ridge. The Leihuling crater and Luojingpan crater near Shishan are also very well preserved. There are many karst caves in various shapes and forms, among which the famous Luobi Cave in Sanya, Qianlong Cave in Baoting, Emperor Cave in Changjiang and so on. Hot springs on the island are widely distributed. Most of the hot springs are low in mineralization, high in temperature, large in water volume, and good in water quality. They are therapeutic hot springs and the area where the hot springs are located is pleasant. Xinglong Hot Springs, Guantang Hot Springs, Nanping Hot Springs, Lanyang Hot Springs, etc. are suitable for the development of tourism that integrates sightseeing, recuperation, and scientific research.


Historic sites and places of interest


Historic monuments include the Wugong Temple built to commemorate five famous historical officials, including Li Deyu, who was relegated to Hainan Island during the Tang and Song Dynasties. Dongpo Academy, the site where the great writer Su Dongpo of the Northern Song Dynasty settled in Hainan. And the Su Gong Temple built to commemorate Su Shi. Qiongtai Academy built by Lei Qiong Bingbei Dao Jiao Yinghan in the Qing Dynasty. The tomb of Qiu Jun, a famous official of the Ming Dynasty. The tomb of the great upright official of the Ming Dynasty Hai Rui. According to legend, the Fubo Well of the Hanma, as well as the ancient city of Yazhou, the Wei's ancestral hall, and the Wenchang Confucian Temple, were ordered to be dug by the general Ma Yuan, who was sent by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty to Hainan to save the soldiers and horses.


Revolutionary memorial place


Hainans revolutionary memorial sites include the site of the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China in Qiongya, the site of the Qiongya Column Headquarters, the Red Detachment of Women Memorial, the Jinniuling Martyrs Cemetery, the Baisha Uprising Memorial, and the site of the Soviet government in Lingshui County. There are also Song Qing 's ancestral residence and exhibition hall, Zhang Yunyi's memorial hall and so on.


National customs


The ethnic minorities living here on Hainan Island for generations include the Li, Miao, and Hui. They still retain many simple and honest folk customs and living habits, which make Hainan's social style unique and colorful. Hainan is the only area inhabited by the Li nationality in the country. The Li nationalitys distinctive ethnic culture and customs have unique tourism value.


Tropical crops and rural scenery


A large number of tropical crops grow on Hainan Island, which greatly enriches the natural landscape. Visitors to the island can enjoy the tropical pastoral scenery and increase their knowledge, and they can also taste tropical fruits for a real treat.

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